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For Goethe, his first ten years at Weimar could well be described as a garnering of a degree and range of experience which perhaps could be achieved in no other way.

In , when the chancellor of the Duchy's Exchequer left his office, Goethe agreed to act in his place for two and a half years; this post virtually made him prime minister and the principal representative of the Duchy.

The author W. Goethe's journey to the Italian peninsula and Sicily from to was of great significance in his aesthetic and philosophical development.

His father had made a similar journey during his own youth, and his example was a major motivating factor for Goethe to make the trip.

More importantly, however, the work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann had provoked a general renewed interest in the classical art of ancient Greece and Rome.

Thus Goethe's journey had something of the nature of a pilgrimage to it. During the course of his trip Goethe met and befriended the artists Angelica Kauffman and Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein , as well as encountering such notable characters as Lady Hamilton and Alessandro Cagliostro see Affair of the Diamond Necklace.

He also journeyed to Sicily during this time, and wrote intriguingly that "To have seen Italy without having seen Sicily is to not have seen Italy at all, for Sicily is the clue to everything.

Winckelmann had not recognized the distinctness of the two styles. Goethe's diaries of this period form the basis of the non-fiction Italian Journey.

Italian Journey only covers the first year of Goethe's visit. The remaining year is largely undocumented, aside from the fact that he spent much of it in Venice.

This "gap in the record" has been the source of much speculation over the years. In the decades which immediately followed its publication in , Italian Journey inspired countless German youths to follow Goethe's example.

This is pictured, somewhat satirically, in George Eliot 's Middlemarch. Again during the Siege of Mainz , he assisted Carl August as a military observer.

His written account of these events can be found within his Complete Works. In , Friedrich Schiller wrote to Goethe offering friendship; they had previously had only a mutually wary relationship ever since first becoming acquainted in This collaborative friendship lasted until Schiller's death in Vulpius , and their son Julius August Walter von Goethe.

On 13 October, Napoleon 's army invaded the town. The French "spoon guards", the least disciplined soldiers, occupied Goethe's house:.

The 'spoon guards' had broken in, they had drunk wine, made a great uproar and called for the master of the house. Goethe's secretary Riemer reports: 'Although already undressed and wearing only his wide nightgown His dignified figure, commanding respect, and his spiritual mien seemed to impress even them.

Late at night they burst into his bedroom with drawn bayonets. Goethe was petrified, Christiane raised a lot of noise and even tangled with them, other people who had taken refuge in Goethe's house rushed in, and so the marauders eventually withdrew again.

It was Christiane who commanded and organized the defense of the house on the Frauenplan. The barricading of the kitchen and the cellar against the wild pillaging soldiery was her work.

Goethe noted in his diary: "Fires, rapine, a frightful night Preservation of the house through steadfastness and luck.

They had already had several children together by this time, including their son, Julius August Walter von Goethe — , whose wife, Ottilie von Pogwisch — , cared for the elder Goethe until his death in Christiane von Goethe died in Johann reflected, "There is nothing more charming to see than a mother with her child in her arms, and there is nothing more venerable than a mother among a number of her children.

After , Goethe devoted his endeavours primarily to literature. By , Goethe was on amiable terms with Kaspar Maria von Sternberg. In , having recovered from a near fatal heart illness, the year-old Goethe fell in love with the teenaged Ulrike von Levetzow whom he wanted to marry, but because of the opposition of her mother he never proposed.

Their last meeting in Carlsbad on 5 September inspired him to the famous Marienbad Elegy which he considered one of his finest works.

Goethe, now in his seventies, was greatly impressed by the child, leading to perhaps the earliest confirmed comparison with Mozart in the following conversation between Goethe and Zelter:.

Mendelssohn was invited to meet Goethe on several later occasions, [28] and set a number of Goethe's poems to music. In , Goethe died in Weimar of apparent heart failure.

His last words, according to his doctor Carl Vogel, were, Mehr Licht! More light! Eckermann closes his famous work, Conversations with Goethe , with this passage:.

The morning after Goethe's death, a deep desire seized me to look once again upon his earthly garment. His faithful servant, Frederick, opened for me the chamber in which he was laid out.

Stretched upon his back, he reposed as if asleep; profound peace and security reigned in the features of his sublimely noble countenance.

The mighty brow seemed yet to harbour thoughts. I wished for a lock of his hair; but reverence prevented me from cutting it off. The body lay naked, only wrapped in a white sheet; large pieces of ice had been placed near it, to keep it fresh as long as possible.

Frederick drew aside the sheet, and I was astonished at the divine magnificence of the limbs. The breast was powerful, broad, and arched; the arms and thighs were elegant, and of the most perfect shape; nowhere, on the whole body, was there a trace of either fat or of leanness and decay.

A perfect man lay in great beauty before me; and the rapture the sight caused me made me forget for a moment that the immortal spirit had left such an abode.

I laid my hand on his heart — there was a deep silence — and I turned away to give free vent to my suppressed tears.

The first production of Richard Wagner 's opera Lohengrin took place in Weimar in The conductor was Franz Liszt , who chose the date 28 August in honour of Goethe, who was born on 28 August The most important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar were Götz von Berlichingen , a tragedy that was the first work to bring him recognition, and the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther German: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers , which gained him enormous fame as a writer in the Sturm und Drang period which marked the early phase of Romanticism.

Indeed, Werther is often considered to be the "spark" which ignited the movement, and can arguably be called the world's first " best-seller. In the last period, between Schiller's death, in , and his own, appeared Faust Part One , Elective Affinities , the West-Eastern Diwan a collection of poems in the Persian style, influenced by the work of Hafez , his autobiographical Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit From My Life: Poetry and Truth which covers his early life and ends with his departure for Weimar, his Italian Journey , and a series of treatises on art.

His writings were immediately influential in literary and artistic circles. The short epistolary novel , Die Leiden des jungen Werthers , or The Sorrows of Young Werther , published in , recounts an unhappy romantic infatuation that ends in suicide.

Goethe admitted that he "shot his hero to save himself": a reference to Goethe's own near-suicidal obsession with a young woman during this period, an obsession he quelled through the writing process.

The novel remains in print in dozens of languages and its influence is undeniable; its central hero, an obsessive figure driven to despair and destruction by his unrequited love for the young Lotte, has become a pervasive literary archetype.

The fact that Werther ends with the protagonist's suicide and funeral—a funeral which "no clergyman attended"—made the book deeply controversial upon its anonymous publication, for on the face of it, it appeared to condone and glorify suicide.

Suicide is considered sinful by Christian doctrine : suicides were denied Christian burial with the bodies often mistreated and dishonoured in various ways; in corollary, the deceased's property and possessions were often confiscated by the Church.

He said he "turned reality into poetry but his friends thought poetry should be turned into reality and the poem imitated.

What set Goethe's book apart from other such novels was its expression of unbridled longing for a joy beyond possibility, its sense of defiant rebellion against authority, and of principal importance, its total subjectivity: qualities that trailblazed the Romantic movement.

The next work, his epic closet drama Faust , was completed in stages. The first part was published in and created a sensation. Goethe finished Faust Part Two in the year of his death, and the work was published posthumously.

Goethe's original draft of a Faust play, which probably dates from —74, and is now known as the Urfaust , was also published after his death.

The first operatic version of Goethe's Faust , by Louis Spohr , appeared in The work subsequently inspired operas and oratorios by Schumann , Berlioz , Gounod , Boito , Busoni , and Schnittke as well as symphonic works by Liszt , Wagner , and Mahler.

Faust became the ur-myth of many figures in the 19th century. Later, a facet of its plot, i. In , the world premiere complete production of Faust was staged at the Goetheanum.

Goethe's poetic work served as a model for an entire movement in German poetry termed Innerlichkeit "introversion" and represented by, for example, Heine.

Goethe's words inspired a number of compositions by, among others, Mozart , Beethoven who idolised Goethe , [37] Schubert , Berlioz and Wolf. Perhaps the single most influential piece is "Mignon's Song" which opens with one of the most famous lines in German poetry, an allusion to Italy: " Kennst du das Land, wo die Zitronen blühn?

He is also widely quoted. Epigrams such as "Against criticism a man can neither protest nor defend himself; he must act in spite of it, and then it will gradually yield to him", " Divide and rule , a sound motto; unite and lead, a better one", and "Enjoy when you can, and endure when you must", are still in usage or are often paraphrased.

Some well-known quotations are often incorrectly attributed to Goethe. As to what I have done as a poet, I take no pride in it But that in my century I am the only person who knows the truth in the difficult science of colours—of that, I say, I am not a little proud, and here I have a consciousness of a superiority to many.

Although his literary work has attracted the greatest amount of interest, Goethe was also keenly involved in studies of natural science. Goethe also had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe.

By the time of his death, in order to gain a comprehensive view in geology, he had collected 17, rock samples.

His focus on morphology and what was later called homology influenced 19th century naturalists , although his ideas of transformation were about the continuous metamorphosis of living things and did not relate to contemporary ideas of "transformisme" or transmutation of species.

The elephant's skull that led Goethe to this discovery, and was subsequently named the Goethe Elephant, still exists and is displayed in the Ottoneum in Kassel , Germany.

During his Italian journey, Goethe formulated a theory of plant metamorphosis in which the archetypal form of the plant is to be found in the leaf — he writes, "from top to bottom a plant is all leaf, united so inseparably with the future bud that one cannot be imagined without the other".

The ever-changing display of plant forms, which I have followed for so many years, awakens increasingly within me the notion: The plant forms which surround us were not all created at some given point in time and then locked into the given form, they have been given Goethe's botanical theories were partly based on his gardening in Weimar.

Goethe also popularized the Goethe barometer using a principle established by Torricelli. According to Hegel, "Goethe has occupied himself a good deal with meteorology; barometer readings interested him particularly What he says is important: the main thing is that he gives a comparative table of barometric readings during the whole month of December , at Weimar, Jena , London, Boston, Vienna, Töpel He claims to deduce from it that the barometric level varies in the same proportion not only in each zone but that it has the same variation, too, at different altitudes above sea-level".

In , Goethe published his Theory of Colours , which he considered his most important work. In it, he contentiously characterized colour as arising from the dynamic interplay of light and darkness through the mediation of a turbid medium.

After being translated into English by Charles Eastlake in , his theory became widely adopted by the art world, most notably J.

Goethe was vehemently opposed to Newton's analytic treatment of colour, engaging instead in compiling a comprehensive rational description of a wide variety of colour phenomena.

Although the accuracy of Goethe's observations does not admit a great deal of criticism, his aesthetic approach did not lend itself to the demands of analytic and mathematical analysis used ubiquitously in modern Science.

Goethe was, however, the first to systematically study the physiological effects of colour, and his observations on the effect of opposed colours led him to a symmetric arrangement of his colour wheel, 'for the colours diametrically opposed to each other Goethe, Theory of Colours , Goethe outlines his method in the essay The experiment as mediator between subject and object Steiner elaborated on that in the books The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception [52] and Goethe's World View , [53] in which he characterizes intuition as the instrument by which one grasps Goethe's biological archetype— The Typus.

Novalis , himself a geologist and mining engineer, expressed the opinion that Goethe was the first physicist of his time and 'epoch-making in the history of physics', writing that Goethe's studies of light, of the metamorphosis of plants and of insects were indications and proofs 'that the perfect educational lecture belongs in the artist's sphere of work'; and that Goethe would be surpassed 'but only in the way in which the ancients can be surpassed, in inner content and force, in variety and depth—as an artist actually not, or only very little, for his rightness and intensity are perhaps already more exemplary than it would seem'.

Many of Goethe's works, especially Faust , the Roman Elegies , and the Venetian Epigrams , depict erotic passions and acts. For instance, in Faust , the first use of Faust's power after signing a contract with the devil is to seduce a teenage girl.

Some of the Venetian Epigrams were held back from publication due to their sexual content. Goethe clearly saw human sexuality as a topic worthy of poetic and artistic depiction, an idea that was uncommon in a time when the private nature of sexuality was rigorously normative.

In a conversation on April 7, Goethe stated that pederasty is an "aberration" that easily leads to "animal, roughly material" behavior.

He continued, "Pederasty is as old as humanity itself, and one can therefore say, that it resides in nature, even if it proceeds against nature What culture has won from nature will not be surrendered or given up at any price.

If I tire of her as a girl, she'll play the boy for me as well". Goethe was a freethinker who believed that one could be inwardly Christian without following any of the Christian churches, many of whose central teachings he firmly opposed, sharply distinguishing between Christ and the tenets of Christian theology, and criticizing its history as a "hodgepodge of fallacy and violence".

Born into a Lutheran family, Goethe's early faith was shaken by news of such events as the Lisbon earthquake and the Seven Years' War.

Goethe's preoccupation with and reverence for Spinoza are well known and documented in the history of Western thought. His later spiritual perspective incorporated elements of pantheism heavily influenced by Spinoza's thought , [64] [66] [75] humanism , and various elements of Western esotericism , as seen most vividly in part 2 of Faust.

Politically, Goethe described himself as a "moderate liberal. Goethe was a Freemason , joining the lodge Amalia in Weimar in , and frequently alluded to Masonic themes of universal brotherhood in his work, [88] he was also attracted to the Bavarian Illuminati a secret society founded on 1 May In old age, he explained why this was so to Eckermann:.

How could I write songs of hatred when I felt no hate? And, between ourselves, I never hated the French, although I thanked God when we were rid of them.

How could I, to whom the only significant things are civilization [ Kultur ] and barbarism, hate a nation which is among the most cultivated in the world, and to which I owe a great part of my own culture?

In any case this business of hatred between nations is a curious thing. You will always find it more powerful and barbarous on the lowest levels of civilization.

But there exists a level at which it wholly disappears, and where one stands, so to speak, above the nations, and feels the weal or woe of a neighboring people as though it were one's own.

Goethe had a great effect on the nineteenth century. In many respects, he was the originator of many ideas which later became widespread. He produced volumes of poetry, essays, criticism, a theory of colours and early work on evolution and linguistics.

He was fascinated by mineralogy , and the mineral goethite iron oxide is named after him. With these I must come to terms when I have long wandered alone; they may call me right and wrong; to them will I listen when in the process they call each other right and wrong.

Goethe embodied many of the contending strands in art over the next century: his work could be lushly emotional, and rigorously formal, brief and epigrammatic , and epic.

He would argue that Classicism was the means of controlling art, and that Romanticism was a sickness, even as he penned poetry rich in memorable images, and rewrote the formal rules of German poetry.

His poetry was set to music by almost every major Austrian and German composer from Mozart to Mahler , and his influence would spread to French drama and opera as well.

Beethoven declared that a "Faust" Symphony would be the greatest thing for art. Liszt and Mahler both created symphonies in whole or in large part inspired by this seminal work, which would give the 19th century one of its most paradigmatic figures: Doctor Faustus.

Followers of the twentieth century esotericist Rudolf Steiner built a theatre named the Goetheanum after him—where festival performances of Faust are still performed.

Goethe was also a cultural force. It was to a considerable degree due to Goethe's reputation that the city of Weimar was chosen in as the venue for the national assembly , convened to draft a new constitution for what would become known as Germany's Weimar Republic.

Goethe became a key reference for Thomas Mann in his speeches and essays defending the republic. The Federal Republic of Germany's cultural institution, the Goethe-Institut is named after him, and promotes the study of German abroad and fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on its culture, society and politics.

Goethe's influence was dramatic because he understood that there was a transition in European sensibilities, an increasing focus on sense, the indescribable, and the emotional.

This is not to say that he was emotionalistic or excessive; on the contrary, he lauded personal restraint and felt that excess was a disease: "There is nothing worse than imagination without taste".

Goethe praised Francis Bacon for his advocacy of science based on experiment and his forceful revolution in thought as one of the greatest strides forward in modern science.

We conceive of the individual animal as a small world, existing for its own sake, by its own means. Every creature is its own reason to be.

All its parts have a direct effect on one another, a relationship to one another, thereby constantly renewing the circle of life; thus we are justified in considering every animal physiologically perfect.

Viewed from within, no part of the animal is a useless or arbitrary product of the formative impulse as so often thought. Externally, some parts may seem useless because the inner coherence of the animal nature has given them this form without regard to outer circumstance.

Goethe's scientific and aesthetic ideas have much in common with Denis Diderot , whose work he translated and studied. His views make him, along with Adam Smith , Thomas Jefferson , and Ludwig van Beethoven , a figure in two worlds: on the one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Reason and the neo-classical period of architecture ; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and society, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems.

George Henry Lewes celebrated Goethe's revolutionary understanding of the organism. Thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson would take up many similar ideas in the s.

Goethe's ideas on evolution would frame the question that Darwin and Wallace would approach within the scientific paradigm. The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust , his favorite poem, and had actually memorized the entire text.

It was while reciting a certain verse that he was struck with the epiphany that would lead to the idea of the rotating magnetic field and ultimately, alternating current.

See Johann Wolfgang von Goethe bibliography. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Goethe disambiguation and Gote disambiguation.

Goethe in , by Joseph Karl Stieler. Leipzig University University of Strasbourg. Sturm und Drang Weimar Classicism Romanticism in science. Christiane Vulpius.

See also: Goethean science. Poetry portal Philosophy portal Biography portal. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed.

Pearson Longman. Retrieved 7 June The Art of Literature. The Essays of Arthur Schopenahuer. Retrieved 22 March Vorlesungen gehalten an der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin.

Ludwig-Röhrscheid-Verlag, Bonn , p. Ernst-Rowohlt-Verlag, Berlin , pp. Retrieved 17 July Christian Wegner , Hamburg , p. Goethes Briefe.

Christian Wegner Verlag. Life of Goethe. Seemann ed. Heidi Klum flashes a peace sign while out and about in Los Angeles on March 2.

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Some well-known quotations are often incorrectly attributed to Goethe. As to what I have done as a poet, I take no pride in it But that in my century I am the only person who knows the truth in the difficult science of colours—of that, I say, I am not a little proud, and here I have a consciousness of a superiority to many.

Although his literary work has attracted the greatest amount of interest, Goethe was also keenly involved in studies of natural science. Goethe also had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe.

By the time of his death, in order to gain a comprehensive view in geology, he had collected 17, rock samples. His focus on morphology and what was later called homology influenced 19th century naturalists , although his ideas of transformation were about the continuous metamorphosis of living things and did not relate to contemporary ideas of "transformisme" or transmutation of species.

The elephant's skull that led Goethe to this discovery, and was subsequently named the Goethe Elephant, still exists and is displayed in the Ottoneum in Kassel , Germany.

During his Italian journey, Goethe formulated a theory of plant metamorphosis in which the archetypal form of the plant is to be found in the leaf — he writes, "from top to bottom a plant is all leaf, united so inseparably with the future bud that one cannot be imagined without the other".

The ever-changing display of plant forms, which I have followed for so many years, awakens increasingly within me the notion: The plant forms which surround us were not all created at some given point in time and then locked into the given form, they have been given Goethe's botanical theories were partly based on his gardening in Weimar.

Goethe also popularized the Goethe barometer using a principle established by Torricelli. According to Hegel, "Goethe has occupied himself a good deal with meteorology; barometer readings interested him particularly What he says is important: the main thing is that he gives a comparative table of barometric readings during the whole month of December , at Weimar, Jena , London, Boston, Vienna, Töpel He claims to deduce from it that the barometric level varies in the same proportion not only in each zone but that it has the same variation, too, at different altitudes above sea-level".

In , Goethe published his Theory of Colours , which he considered his most important work. In it, he contentiously characterized colour as arising from the dynamic interplay of light and darkness through the mediation of a turbid medium.

After being translated into English by Charles Eastlake in , his theory became widely adopted by the art world, most notably J.

Goethe was vehemently opposed to Newton's analytic treatment of colour, engaging instead in compiling a comprehensive rational description of a wide variety of colour phenomena.

Although the accuracy of Goethe's observations does not admit a great deal of criticism, his aesthetic approach did not lend itself to the demands of analytic and mathematical analysis used ubiquitously in modern Science.

Goethe was, however, the first to systematically study the physiological effects of colour, and his observations on the effect of opposed colours led him to a symmetric arrangement of his colour wheel, 'for the colours diametrically opposed to each other Goethe, Theory of Colours , Goethe outlines his method in the essay The experiment as mediator between subject and object Steiner elaborated on that in the books The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception [52] and Goethe's World View , [53] in which he characterizes intuition as the instrument by which one grasps Goethe's biological archetype— The Typus.

Novalis , himself a geologist and mining engineer, expressed the opinion that Goethe was the first physicist of his time and 'epoch-making in the history of physics', writing that Goethe's studies of light, of the metamorphosis of plants and of insects were indications and proofs 'that the perfect educational lecture belongs in the artist's sphere of work'; and that Goethe would be surpassed 'but only in the way in which the ancients can be surpassed, in inner content and force, in variety and depth—as an artist actually not, or only very little, for his rightness and intensity are perhaps already more exemplary than it would seem'.

Many of Goethe's works, especially Faust , the Roman Elegies , and the Venetian Epigrams , depict erotic passions and acts.

For instance, in Faust , the first use of Faust's power after signing a contract with the devil is to seduce a teenage girl.

Some of the Venetian Epigrams were held back from publication due to their sexual content. Goethe clearly saw human sexuality as a topic worthy of poetic and artistic depiction, an idea that was uncommon in a time when the private nature of sexuality was rigorously normative.

In a conversation on April 7, Goethe stated that pederasty is an "aberration" that easily leads to "animal, roughly material" behavior.

He continued, "Pederasty is as old as humanity itself, and one can therefore say, that it resides in nature, even if it proceeds against nature What culture has won from nature will not be surrendered or given up at any price.

If I tire of her as a girl, she'll play the boy for me as well". Goethe was a freethinker who believed that one could be inwardly Christian without following any of the Christian churches, many of whose central teachings he firmly opposed, sharply distinguishing between Christ and the tenets of Christian theology, and criticizing its history as a "hodgepodge of fallacy and violence".

Born into a Lutheran family, Goethe's early faith was shaken by news of such events as the Lisbon earthquake and the Seven Years' War.

Goethe's preoccupation with and reverence for Spinoza are well known and documented in the history of Western thought.

His later spiritual perspective incorporated elements of pantheism heavily influenced by Spinoza's thought , [64] [66] [75] humanism , and various elements of Western esotericism , as seen most vividly in part 2 of Faust.

Politically, Goethe described himself as a "moderate liberal. Goethe was a Freemason , joining the lodge Amalia in Weimar in , and frequently alluded to Masonic themes of universal brotherhood in his work, [88] he was also attracted to the Bavarian Illuminati a secret society founded on 1 May In old age, he explained why this was so to Eckermann:.

How could I write songs of hatred when I felt no hate? And, between ourselves, I never hated the French, although I thanked God when we were rid of them.

How could I, to whom the only significant things are civilization [ Kultur ] and barbarism, hate a nation which is among the most cultivated in the world, and to which I owe a great part of my own culture?

In any case this business of hatred between nations is a curious thing. You will always find it more powerful and barbarous on the lowest levels of civilization.

But there exists a level at which it wholly disappears, and where one stands, so to speak, above the nations, and feels the weal or woe of a neighboring people as though it were one's own.

Goethe had a great effect on the nineteenth century. In many respects, he was the originator of many ideas which later became widespread.

He produced volumes of poetry, essays, criticism, a theory of colours and early work on evolution and linguistics.

He was fascinated by mineralogy , and the mineral goethite iron oxide is named after him. With these I must come to terms when I have long wandered alone; they may call me right and wrong; to them will I listen when in the process they call each other right and wrong.

Goethe embodied many of the contending strands in art over the next century: his work could be lushly emotional, and rigorously formal, brief and epigrammatic , and epic.

He would argue that Classicism was the means of controlling art, and that Romanticism was a sickness, even as he penned poetry rich in memorable images, and rewrote the formal rules of German poetry.

His poetry was set to music by almost every major Austrian and German composer from Mozart to Mahler , and his influence would spread to French drama and opera as well.

Beethoven declared that a "Faust" Symphony would be the greatest thing for art. Liszt and Mahler both created symphonies in whole or in large part inspired by this seminal work, which would give the 19th century one of its most paradigmatic figures: Doctor Faustus.

Followers of the twentieth century esotericist Rudolf Steiner built a theatre named the Goetheanum after him—where festival performances of Faust are still performed.

Goethe was also a cultural force. It was to a considerable degree due to Goethe's reputation that the city of Weimar was chosen in as the venue for the national assembly , convened to draft a new constitution for what would become known as Germany's Weimar Republic.

Goethe became a key reference for Thomas Mann in his speeches and essays defending the republic. The Federal Republic of Germany's cultural institution, the Goethe-Institut is named after him, and promotes the study of German abroad and fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on its culture, society and politics.

Goethe's influence was dramatic because he understood that there was a transition in European sensibilities, an increasing focus on sense, the indescribable, and the emotional.

This is not to say that he was emotionalistic or excessive; on the contrary, he lauded personal restraint and felt that excess was a disease: "There is nothing worse than imagination without taste".

Goethe praised Francis Bacon for his advocacy of science based on experiment and his forceful revolution in thought as one of the greatest strides forward in modern science.

We conceive of the individual animal as a small world, existing for its own sake, by its own means. Every creature is its own reason to be.

All its parts have a direct effect on one another, a relationship to one another, thereby constantly renewing the circle of life; thus we are justified in considering every animal physiologically perfect.

Viewed from within, no part of the animal is a useless or arbitrary product of the formative impulse as so often thought. Externally, some parts may seem useless because the inner coherence of the animal nature has given them this form without regard to outer circumstance.

Goethe's scientific and aesthetic ideas have much in common with Denis Diderot , whose work he translated and studied. His views make him, along with Adam Smith , Thomas Jefferson , and Ludwig van Beethoven , a figure in two worlds: on the one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Reason and the neo-classical period of architecture ; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and society, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems.

George Henry Lewes celebrated Goethe's revolutionary understanding of the organism. Thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson would take up many similar ideas in the s.

Goethe's ideas on evolution would frame the question that Darwin and Wallace would approach within the scientific paradigm.

The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust , his favorite poem, and had actually memorized the entire text.

It was while reciting a certain verse that he was struck with the epiphany that would lead to the idea of the rotating magnetic field and ultimately, alternating current.

See Johann Wolfgang von Goethe bibliography. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Goethe disambiguation and Gote disambiguation.

Goethe in , by Joseph Karl Stieler. Leipzig University University of Strasbourg. Sturm und Drang Weimar Classicism Romanticism in science.

Christiane Vulpius. See also: Goethean science. Poetry portal Philosophy portal Biography portal. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Pearson Longman. Retrieved 7 June The Art of Literature. The Essays of Arthur Schopenahuer.

Retrieved 22 March Vorlesungen gehalten an der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin. Ludwig-Röhrscheid-Verlag, Bonn , p.

Ernst-Rowohlt-Verlag, Berlin , pp. Retrieved 17 July Christian Wegner , Hamburg , p. Goethes Briefe.

Christian Wegner Verlag. Life of Goethe. Seemann ed. Jahrbuch der Klassik Stiftung Weimar Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, pp. Cambridge University Press.

Daniel Munich: Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag dtv. Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy. Harvard University Press. New historical anthology of music by women Vol.

Indiana University Press. In: Journal der practischen Heilkunde Correspondence between Schiller and Goethe, from to Vol. Sanskrit Drama in Performance.

Motilal Banarsidass. Pips Project. Archived from the original on 6 October See also: "Ophelia's Burial". Truth and poetry: from my own life".

London, H. Bohn — via Internet Archive. Retrieved 6 July The Nature Institute. Retrieved 28 August On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed.

John Murray. Barteczko and M. Jacob Anatomy and Embryology. Italian Journey. Robert R Heitner. Suhrkamp ed.

Library of Congress. Retrieved 2 January Metamorphosis of Plants. Goethe als Gartenfreund. München: F.

Bruckmann KG. Taschen, Koln. Theory of Colours, paragraph No. Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 26 June Gedenkausgabe der Werke, Briefe und Gespräche.

Retrieved 27 April History in adult human sexual behavior with children and adolescents in Western societies Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions ed.

Springer-Verlag New York Inc. Tetz, "Mischmasch von Irrtum und Gewalt. Conversations of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret, Vol. II, pp. Venetian Epigrams.

The cross symbol he drew has been variously understood as meaning Christianity, Christ, or death. Translated from the German by W.

Goethe: "For many years I did not dare look into a Latin author or at anything which evoked an image of Italy. If this happened by chance, I suffered agonies.

Herder often used to say mockingly that I had learned all my Latin from Spinoza, for that was the only Latin book he had ever seen me reading. He did not realize how carefully I had to guard myself against the classics, and that it was sheer anxiety which drove me to take refuge in the abstractions of Spinoza.

München: Oldenbourg Verlag, , p. Philosophical thinking; without any actual philosophical system.

At first Spinoza exerted a great and lasting influence on him. Philosophisches Denken; ohne eigentliches philosophisches System.

He found himself in him, and so he could fix himself to him in the most beautiful way. Er fand in ihm sich selber, und so konnte er sich auch an ihm auf das schönste befestigen.

Ein Beitrag zur tieferen Würdigung des Dichters und Forschers. Breslau: Druck von O. Oriens Extremus 22 1 : 29— "The Germans, however, were the first to manifest serious interest in him.

Their first great philosopher Leibniz went to seek his advice and his counsel; they were the only ones to invite him to lecture at their university.

Even though Leibniz concealed him from the world, the Germans revealed him to the world. The generation of their greatest philosophers and poets from the second half of the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries grew up under his influence.

Goethe read him together with Charlotte von Stein , and even read him together with her in Latin. To Hegel, Spinoza was "der Mittelpunkt der modernen Philosophie".

In: Spinoza and Other Heretics, Vol. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Yirmiyahu Yovel: "Speaking of his 'ancestors', Nietzsche at various times gives several lists, but he always mentions Spinoza and Goethe—and always as a pair.

Bonn: Inter Nationes, p. Religion, Reason, and Culture in the Age of Goethe. Conversations with Goethe.

University Press of America. Goethe and the Poets of Arabia. Goethe and His Publishers. University of Chicago Press.

University of Michigan Press. Goethe's Search for the Muse: Translation and Creativity. John Benjamins Publishing.

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In any case this business of hatred between nations is a curious thing. Though he had studied law in Leipzig and had Madres follando hijos appointed Imperial Army dating, he was not involved in the city's official affairs. Novalishimself a geologist and mining Uncut world star hip hop, expressed the opinion that Goethe was the first physicist of his time Live nude teen webcams 'epoch-making in the history of physics', writing that Goethe's studies of light, of the Porno hidjabe of plants and of insects were indications and proofs 'that the perfect educational lecture belongs in the artist's sphere of work'; Jw girlfriend molly that Goethe would be Skirt cum 'but only in the way in which the ancients can be Bareback creampie shemale, in inner content and force, in variety and depth—as an artist actually not, or only very little, for his rightness and intensity are perhaps already more exemplary than it would seem'. Munich: Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag dtv. I'm already a fan, don't show this again. Although Goethe's great passion was drawing, he quickly became interested in literature; Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and Homer were among his early favorites. CUP Archive. Library of Congress. The Art of Literature.

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